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Bottes d'hiver Sorel grandeur 8. This required the force-feeding of around 38 million ducks and geese. In , the whole of the EU produced approximately 25, tonnes of foie gras — 23, tonnes of duck foie gras and 2, tonnes of goose foie gras.

In , France produced 19, tons of foie gras In late , there were several outbreaks of the highly contagious H5N1 bird flu in France, which escalated during This led to Algeria, China, Egypt, Japan, Morocco, South Korea, Thailand and Tunisia banning French poultry exports, including foie gras, and France to initiate increased bio-security protocols which will cost an estimated million euros.

One of these measures was the halting of production in southwestern France from early April, for an anticipated period of three months to reduce the spread of the virus.

Exports of foie gras from France are expected to decrease from 4, tonnes in to 3, tonnes in In the United States, the largest producer is Hudson Valley Foie Gras, which uses approximately , ducks each year.

In France, foie gras exists in different, legally defined presentations, ordered by expense: [52].

Fully cooked preparations are generally sold in either glass containers or metal cans for long-term preservation. Whole, fresh foie gras is usually unavailable in France outside the Christmas period, except in some producers' markets in the producing regions.

Frozen whole foie gras sometimes is sold in French supermarkets. Whole foie gras is readily available from gourmet retailers in Canada, the United States, Hungary, Argentina and regions with a sizeable market for the product.

In US, raw foie gras is classified as Grade A, B or C. Grade A is typically the highest in fat and especially suited for low-temperature preparation, because the veins are relatively few and the resulting terrine will be more aesthetically appealing because it displays little blood.

Grade B is accepted for higher temperature preparation, because the higher proportion of protein gives the liver more structure after being seared.

Grade C livers are generally reserved for making sauces as well as other preparations where a higher proportion of blood-filled veins will not impair the appearance of the dish.

Traditionally, foie gras was produced from special breeds of geese. After hatching, the Mulard ducklings are sexed. Males put on more weight than females, so the females are slaughtered.

The basis of foie gras production is the ability that some waterfowl have to expand their esophagus and to gain weight, particularly in the liver, [ citation needed ] in preparation for migration.

The increasing amount of feed given prior to force-feeding and during the force-feeding itself cause expansion of the lower part of the esophagus.

The pre-force feeding phase consists of three stages. The next production phase, which the French call gavage or finition d'engraissement , or "completion of fattening", involves forced daily ingestion of controlled amounts of feed for 12 to 15 days with ducks and for 15 to 18 days with geese.

During this phase, ducks are usually fed twice daily while geese are fed up to three times daily. To facilitate handling of ducks during gavage, these birds are typically housed throughout this phase in individual cages or small group pens.

Typical foie gras production involves force-feeding birds more food than they would eat in the wild, and much more than they would voluntarily eat domestically.

In modern production, the bird is typically fed a controlled amount of feed, depending on the stage of the fattening process, the bird's weight, and the amount of feed the bird last ingested.

This is the equivalent to around 1, grams per day in total mass. If an auger is used, the feeding takes about 45 to 60 seconds, however, modern systems usually use a tube fed by a pneumatic pump with an operation time of 2 to 3 seconds per duck.

During feeding, efforts are made to avoid damaging the bird's esophagus, which could cause injury or death, although researchers have found evidence of inflammation of the walls of the proventriculus after the first session of force-feeding.

The feed, usually corn boiled with fat to facilitate ingestion , deposits large amounts of fat in the liver, thereby producing the buttery consistency sought by some gastronomes.

Ducks reared for foie gras are typically slaughtered at days of age and geese at days. Fattened liver can be produced by alternative methods without gavage, and this is often referred to either as "fatty goose liver" or as foie gras outside France , though it does not conform to the French legal definition.

This method involves timing the slaughter to coincide with the winter migration, when livers are naturally fattened.

Producers outside France do not always force-feed birds to produce fattened livers considered to be foie gras, instead allowing them to eat freely, termed ad libitum.

Interest in alternative production methods has grown recently due to ethical concerns in gavage-based foie gras production.

Such livers are alternatively termed fatty goose liver, ethical foie gras, or humane foie gras. The British supermarket chain Waitrose also provides a version of ethical foie gras which it calls and has been trademarked faux gras.

The term ethical foie gras or humane foie gras is also used for gavage-based foie gras production that is more concerned with the animal's welfare using rubber hoses rather than steel pipes for feeding.

Others have expressed skepticism at these claims of humane treatment, [78] as earlier attempts to produce fattened livers without gavage have not produced satisfactory results.

A more humane version of foie gras was pioneered in the Spanish region of Extremadura , whereby the bird is tricked into preparing for migration rather than force-fed.

More radical approaches have been studied. A duck or goose with a ventromedian hypothalamic VMH lesion will tend not to feel satiated after eating, and will therefore eat more than a non-lesioned animal.

By producing such lesions surgically, it is possible to increase the bird's food consumption when permitted to eat ad libitum , by a factor of more than two.

Currently, one of the few producers in the world of patented and certified goose- and ducklivers without force-feeding but up to the same standards as the traditional foie gras is the German company Foie Royale.

Human obesity and microbiome studies led French researchers at a startup company called Aviwell to use probiotic preparations to produce fatty livers in geese over 6 months without forced feeding.

Generally, French preparations of foie gras are made over low heat, as fat melts faster from the traditional goose foie gras than the duck foie gras produced in most other parts of the world.

American and other New World preparations, typically employing duck foie gras, have more recipes and dish preparations for serving foie gras hot, rather than cool or cold.

In Hungary, goose foie gras traditionally is fried in goose fat, which is then poured over the foie gras and left to cool; it is also eaten warm, after being fried or roasted, with some chefs smoking the foie gras over a cherry wood fire.

In other parts of the world foie gras is served in dishes such as foie gras sushi rolls, in various forms of pasta or alongside steak tartare or atop a steak as a garnish.

These slow-cooked forms of foie gras are cooled and served at or below room temperature. In a very traditional form of terrine, au torchon "in a towel" , a whole lobe of foie is molded, wrapped in a towel and slow-cooked in a bain-marie.

For added flavor from the Maillard reaction , the liver may be seared briefly over a fire of grape vine clippings sarments before slow-cooking in a bain-marie; afterwards, it is pressed served cold, in slices.

Raw foie gras is also cured in salt " cru au sel " , served slightly chilled. A pastry containing fatty goose liver and other ingredients is known as the " Strasburg pie" since Strasbourg was a major producer of foie gras.

The Strasburg pie is mentioned in William Makepeace Thackeray 's novel Vanity Fair as being popular with the diplomatic corps.

Aubrey and Dr. Maturin enjoy a "Strasburg pie" in Patrick O'Brian 's Napoleonic sea adventure The Letter of Marque. Given the increased internationalization of cuisines and food supply, foie gras is increasingly found in hot preparations not only in the United States, but in France and elsewhere.

Duck foie gras " foie gras de canard " has slightly lower fat content and is generally more suitable in texture to cooking at high temperature than is goose foie gras " foie gras d'oie " , but chefs have been able to cook goose foie gras employing similar techniques developed for duck, albeit with more care.

As foie gras has high fat content, contact with heat needs to be brief and therefore at high temperature, lest it burn or melt.

Some chefs prefer not to devein the foie gras, as the veins can help preserve the integrity of the fatty liver. It is increasingly common to sear the foie gras on one side only, leaving the other side uncooked.

Practitioners of molecular gastronomy such as Heston Blumenthal of The Fat Duck restaurant first flash-freeze foie gras in liquid nitrogen as part of the preparation process.

Hot foie gras requires minimal spices; typically black pepper, paprika in Hungary and salt. Chefs have used fleur de sel as a gourmet seasoning for hot foie gras to add an "important textural accent" with its crunch.

Foie gras is regarded as a gourmet luxury dish. Duck foie gras is the slightly cheaper [94] and, since a change of production methods in the s to battery, by far the most common kind, particularly in the US.

The taste of duck foie gras is often referred to as musky with a subtle bitterness. Goose foie gras is noted for being less gamey and smoother, with a more delicate flavor.

Gavage-based foie gras production is controversial due to the animal welfare consequences of the force-feeding procedure, intensive housing and husbandry, an enlarged liver and the potential for being detrimental to human health.

Some countries find foie gras to be "morally objectionable". The production of foie gras occurs on the argument that migrating wildfowl seasonally eat such that their liver naturally enlarges.

However, the bird used predominantly in foie gras production is a hybrid of a male Muscovy duck and a female Pekin duck.

It has been noted that the Muscovy duck is non-migratory, [] and both the Pekin and the mulard hybrid cannot fly.

Therefore, although the domestic goose might well be adapted to store food before migration, it is less likely that the Mulard hybrid duck has the same potential.

Geese and ducks show avoidance behaviour indicating aversion toward the person who feeds them and the feeding procedure. An EU committee in [] reported that there was usually clear evidence of tissue damage in the esophagus of birds which had been gavage fed, although one study cited by the report observed no alteration of the esophageal tissue.

More recent scientific studies have shown that the esophagus of birds can be injured or inflamed by gavage feeding. After measuring a range of physiological parameters in male Mulard ducks, it was concluded in one study that the acute stress caused by force feeding is similar at the beginning and end of the commercial production of foie gras.

In France, at the end of , individual cages were prohibited to improve animal welfare. They will be replaced by cages which house 4 to 5 birds.

During the force-feeding period, the birds are kept in individual cages, with wire or plastic mesh floors, or sometimes in small groups on slatted floors.

Individual caging restricts movements and behaviours by preventing the birds from standing erect, turning around, or flapping their wings.

Birds cannot carry out other natural waterfowl behaviours, such as bathing and swimming. During the force feeding period, when the birds are not being fed, they are sometimes kept in near darkness; this prevents normal investigatory behaviour and results in poor welfare.

Lesions can occur on the sternum of the birds due to necrosis of the skin. This is observed more frequently in birds reared in cages rather than on the floor.

This is due to the larger pectoralis profundus major and minor muscles in Muscovy ducks compared to Mulards. Where ducks are fattened in group pens, it has been suggested that the increased effort required to capture and restrain ducks in pens might cause them to experience more stress during force feeding.

Injuries and fatalities during transport and slaughter occur in all types of poultry production, however, fattened ducks are more susceptible to conditions such as heat stress.

Foie gras production results in the bird's liver being swollen. The polarising and controversial nature of foie gras production was identified in a paper that juxtaposed the views of "foie gras production as the apotheosis of murderous meat production, and those who consider it to be a co-production between humans and animals".

Animal rights and welfare advocates such as PETA , [] Viva! In April—May , an investigator from Mercy for Animals recorded undercover video at Hudson Valley Foie Gras farm in New York state.

The video showed workers forcefully pushing tubes down ducks' throats. One worker said of the force-feeding process: "Sometimes the duck doesn't get up and it dies.

There have been times that 20 ducks were killed. In November , the Daily Mirror published a report based on the video they obtained depicting cruelty towards ducks in a farm owned by French firm Ernest Soulard, which is a supplier to celebrity chef Gordon Ramsay 's restaurants.

The process of force-feeding can make animals sick by stressing the liver. If the stress is prolonged, excess protein may build up and clump together as amyloids, consumption of which has been found to induce amyloidosis in laboratory mice.

It has been hypothesized this may be a route of transmission in humans too and so be a risk for people with inflammatory complaints such as rheumatoid arthritis.

A number of countries and regions have laws against force-feeding or the sale or importation of foie gras, and even where it is legal some retailers have ceased to sell it.

In , foie gras production was banned in Brussels , a largely symbolic measure because of the small number of producers within the city limits.

Belgium is one of a number of countries that continues to produce foie gras legally. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Redirected from Iecur ficatum. Foie gras Foie gras with mustard seeds and green beans in duck jus.

Chapter 77 [20]. This section needs to be updated. The reason given is: Figures are not up to date, table is very dated by now.

Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. March July World laws on foie gras production. Further information: Foie gras controversy.

Food portal. June Archived from the original PDF on 14 February Retrieved 14 February Archived from the original on 16 December Retrieved 10 April It has been made and appreciated since Roman times and probably long before; the force-feeding of geese is clearly represented in Egyptian art from BC.

Archived from the original on 29 December Retrieved 29 December Foie Gras Gourmet. Retrieved 27 February In both, the human liver is always hepar , while iecur is used of an animal Ernout, A.

Klincksieck, Paris John Bostock , Henry Thomas Riley. Archived 13 February at the Wayback Machine For the original Latin text, see here [3]. The Latin text ed.

Karl Friedrich Theodor Mayhoff of Perseus Digital Library places the corresponding text in a wrong chapter. URL accessed 30 December The word ficato is formed on the Latin word FICUS 'fig', and would appear to have nothing to do with the 'liver' other than the Greeks, followed by the Romans, fattened their geese with figs to obtain particularly fleshy and tasty livers.

The FICATUM JECUR or 'fig-fattened goose liver', which was very much sought after, must have become such a common expression that it was shortened to FICATUM just as the modern French say frites as an abbreviation of pommes de terre frites.

To begin with the word FICATUM probably designated only edible animal livers, with its meaning then being extended to include the human organ.

It is commonly said that the practice dates back even further, to ancient Egypt, and that knowledge of it was possibly acquired by the Jews during their period of 'bondage' there and transmitted by them to the classical civilizations.

Moment Magazine. Xinhua online. Archived from the original on 2 June Retrieved 12 March Retrieved 2 May Archived from the original PDF on 28 February Retrieved 28 February BBC News.

European Society of Dog and Animal Welfare. Retrieved 17 October Express de Madagascar. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses.

The Guardian.

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